Mafakitale Amene Tinkatumikira

Kupanga Mafuta ku Oilfields

Kodi mizere yowongolera imagwira ntchito bwanji m'zitsime?

Mizere yowongolera imathandizira kutumiza ma siginecha, kulola kulandidwa kwa data kumunsi, ndikuloleza kuwongolera ndi kuyambitsa zida zotsitsa.

Lamulo ndi zizindikiro zowongolera zitha kutumizidwa kuchokera pamalo pamtunda kupita ku chida chapansi pa chitsime.Deta yochokera ku masensa apansi atha kutumizidwa ku makina apamwamba kuti awonedwe kapena kugwiritsidwa ntchito pazitsime zina.

Ma valve otetezedwa ku Downhole (DHSVs) ndi ma valve otetezedwa apansi panthaka (SCSSV) omwe amayendetsedwa ndi ma hydraulic kuchokera pagawo lowongolera pamtunda.Kuthamanga kwa hydraulic kukagwiritsidwa ntchito pansi pa mzere wolamulira, kupanikizika kumakakamiza mkono mkati mwa valavu kuti utsike pansi, kutsegula valavu.Potulutsa mphamvu ya hydraulic, valavu imatseka.

Mizere ya Meilong Tube's downhole hydraulic hydraulic mizere imagwiritsidwa ntchito makamaka ngati njira zoyankhulirana za zida zogwiritsira ntchito ma hydraulically m'zitsime zamafuta, gasi, ndi jakisoni wamadzi, komwe kumafunikira kulimba ndi kukana zinthu zovuta kwambiri.Mizere iyi ikhoza kukonzedwa kuti igwiritsidwe ntchito zosiyanasiyana komanso zigawo zapansi.

Zida zonse zotsekedwa ndizokhazikika pa hydrolytically ndipo zimagwirizana ndi madzi onse omaliza bwino, kuphatikiza mpweya wothamanga kwambiri.Kusankhidwa kwa zinthu kumachokera pazikhalidwe zosiyanasiyana, kuphatikizapo kutentha kwa pansi, kuuma, kugwedezeka ndi kung'ambika, kuyamwa kwa madzi ndi mpweya wa mpweya, okosijeni, ndi abrasion ndi kukana mankhwala.

Mizere yowongolera yakhala ikukulirakulira, kuphatikiza kuyezetsa kuphwanya ndi kuyeserera bwino kwa autoclave.Kuyesa kwa labotale kwawonetsa kuchuluka kwa kuchuluka komwe machubu otsekedwa amatha kusunga kukhulupirika, makamaka pomwe "mawaya akuluakulu" amagwiritsidwa ntchito.

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Kodi mizere yowongolera imagwiritsidwa ntchito pati?

★ Zitsime zanzeru zomwe zimafuna magwiridwe antchito ndi mapindu a kasamalidwe ka ma reservoir a zida zowongolera kuthamanga kwakutali chifukwa cha mtengo kapena kuwopsa kwa zinthu kapena kulephera kuthandizira maziko ofunikira kudera lakutali.

★ Malo, nsanja, kapena malo apansi pa nyanja.

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Mphamvu ya Geothermal Power Generation

Mitundu ya Zomera

Pali mitundu itatu ya zomera zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito popanga magetsi.Mtundu wa chomera umatsimikiziridwa makamaka ndi chilengedwe cha geothermal resource pamalopo.

Chomwe chimatchedwa mwachindunji nthunzi yotentha yamoto chimagwiritsidwa ntchito pamene gwero la mpweya limatulutsa nthunzi kuchokera pachitsime.Nthunzi, itatha kudutsa zolekanitsa (zomwe zimachotsa mchenga waung'ono ndi miyala) zimadyetsedwa ku turbine.Iyi inali mitundu yakale kwambiri ya zomera zomwe zinapangidwa ku Italy ndi ku US Tsoka ilo, zinthu za nthunzi ndizosowa kwambiri pamitundu yonse yazachilengedwe ndipo zimapezeka m'malo ochepa padziko lapansi.Mwachiwonekere zomera za nthunzi sizikanagwiritsidwa ntchito kuzinthu zotsika kutentha.

Zomera za nthunzi za Flash zimagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zomwe geothermal gwero imatulutsa madzi otentha otentha kwambiri kapena kuphatikiza kwa nthunzi ndi madzi otentha.Madzi ochokera pachitsime amaperekedwa ku thanki yamoto komwe gawo lina lamadzi limawotcha ndi nthunzi ndipo limalunjika ku turbine.Madzi otsalawo amapita kukataya (nthawi zambiri jekeseni).Malinga ndi kutentha kwa gwero zingakhale zotheka kugwiritsa ntchito magawo awiri a akasinja flash.Pachifukwa ichi, madzi olekanitsidwa pa thanki yoyamba amalowetsedwa ku thanki yachiwiri yomwe imasiyanitsidwa ndi nthunzi yochulukirapo (koma yotsika).Madzi otsala kuchokera mu thanki yachiwiri amatumizidwa kuti atayidwe.Chomera chotchedwa double flash plant chimatulutsa nthunzi pazovuta ziwiri zosiyana ku turbine.Apanso, chomera chamtunduwu sichingagwiritsidwe ntchito pazinthu zotsika kutentha.

Mtundu wachitatu wamagetsi opangira magetsi oyaka moto umatchedwa binary plant.Dzinali limachokera ku mfundo yakuti madzi achiwiri mumkombero wotsekedwa amagwiritsidwa ntchito kugwiritsira ntchito turbine osati nthunzi ya geothermal.Chithunzi 1 chikupereka chithunzi chosavuta cha chomera cha binary mtundu wa geothermal.Madzi a m'nthaka amadutsa m'chotenthetsera chotchedwa boiler kapena vaporizer (m'zomera zina, zotenthetsera ziwiri zotsatizana, yoyamba ndi preheater ndipo yachiwiri ndi vaporizer) komwe kutentha kwamadzimadzi kumasamutsidwa kupita kumadzimadzi omwe amagwira ntchito kuti awira. .Madzi omwe ankagwira ntchito m'mafakitale otsika kwambiri anali CFC (mtundu wa Freon) refrigerants.Makina apano amagwiritsa ntchito ma hydrocarbon (isobutane, pentane etc) amtundu wa HFC firiji wokhala ndi madzi omwe amasankhidwa kuti agwirizane ndi kutentha kwa geothermal.

Chithunzi 1 .Binary geothermal power plant

Chithunzi 1. Binary geothermal power plant

Nthunzi yamadzimadzi yogwira ntchito imaperekedwa ku turbine komwe mphamvu zake zimasinthidwa kukhala mphamvu zamakina ndikuperekedwa, kudzera mu shaft kupita ku jenereta.Mpweya umatuluka mu turbine kupita ku condenser komwe umasinthidwa kukhala madzi.M'zomera zambiri, madzi ozizira amazunguliridwa pakati pa condenser ndi nsanja yozizirira kukana kutentha kumeneku kumlengalenga.Njira ina ndiyo kugwiritsa ntchito zomwe zimatchedwa "dry coolers" kapena makina oziziritsa mpweya omwe amakana kutentha kumlengalenga popanda kufunikira kwa madzi ozizira.Kapangidwe kameneka kamathetsa kuwononga kulikonse kwa madzi ndi zomera kuzizirira.Kuzizira kowuma, chifukwa kumagwira ntchito kumalo otentha kwambiri (makamaka m'nyengo yachilimwe) kusiyana ndi nsanja zoziziritsa kumapangitsa kuti zomera zisamawonongeke.Madzi amadzimadzi ogwira ntchito kuchokera ku condenser amapopedwa kubwerera ku preheater/vaporizer yamphamvu kwambiri ndi mpope wa chakudya kuti abwereze kuzungulira.

Kuzungulira kwa binary ndi mtundu wa chomera chomwe chingagwiritsidwe ntchito pa kutentha kochepa kwa geothermal.Pakadali pano, zida za binary zapashelufu zimapezeka m'ma module a 200 mpaka 1,000 kW.

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MFUNDO ZOYENERA KUPANDA MPHAMVU

Zida Zopangira Mphamvu

Njira yopangira magetsi kuchokera ku gwero la kutentha kwa geothermal (kapena kuchokera ku nthunzi pamalo opangira magetsi wamba) imaphatikizapo njira yomwe akatswiri amatcha kuti Rankine Cycle.Pamalo opangira magetsi wamba, kuzungulira, monga momwe chithunzi 1 chikusonyezera, kumaphatikizapo chowotcha, turbine, jenereta, condenser, mpope wamadzi amadzi, nsanja yozizirira ndi mpope wamadzi ozizira.Mpweya umapangidwa mu boiler ndikuwotcha mafuta (malasha, mafuta, gasi kapena uranium).Mpweyawu umaperekedwa ku turbine komwe, pokulitsa kutsutsana ndi masamba a turbine, mphamvu ya kutentha mu nthunzi imasinthidwa kukhala mphamvu yamakina yomwe imayambitsa kuzungulira kwa turbine.Kuyenda kwamakina kumeneku kumasamutsidwa, kudzera mu shaft kupita ku jenereta komwe kumasinthidwa kukhala mphamvu zamagetsi.Pambuyo podutsa mu turbine nthunzi imasinthidwa kukhala madzi amadzimadzi mu condenser yamagetsi.Kupyolera mu ndondomeko ya condensation, kutentha kosagwiritsidwa ntchito ndi turbine kumatulutsidwa kumadzi ozizira.Madzi ozizira, amaperekedwa ku nsanja yoziziritsa kumene "kutentha kotayirira" kuchokera kuzungulira kumakanidwa kumlengalenga.Mpweya wa condensate umaperekedwa ku boiler ndi mpope wa chakudya kubwereza ndondomekoyi.

Mwachidule, chomera chamagetsi chimangokhala kuzungulira komwe kumathandizira kutembenuka kwa mphamvu kuchokera kumtundu wina kupita ku wina.Pankhaniyi mphamvu yamankhwala mumafuta imasinthidwa kukhala kutentha (pa boiler), ndiyeno ku mphamvu yamakina (mu turbine) ndipo pomaliza ku mphamvu yamagetsi (mu jenereta).Ngakhale mphamvu zomwe zili mu chinthu chomaliza, magetsi, nthawi zambiri amawonetsedwa mu ma watts-hours kapena kilowatt-hours (1000 watt-hours kapena 1kW-hr), kuwerengera kwa ntchito ya zomera kumachitika nthawi zambiri m'mayunitsi a BTU.Ndikoyenera kukumbukira kuti 1 kilowatt-ola ndi mphamvu yofanana ndi 3413 BTU.Chimodzi mwazinthu zofunika kwambiri pakupanga magetsi ndi kuchuluka kwa mphamvu zomwe zimafunikira (mafuta) kuti apange magetsi operekedwa.

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Subsea Umbilicals

Ntchito Zazikulu

Perekani mphamvu zama hydraulic ku machitidwe olamulira a pansi pa nyanja, monga kutsegula / kutseka ma valve

Perekani mphamvu zamagetsi ndi zizindikiro zowongolera ku machitidwe olamulira a subsea

Perekani mankhwala opangira jakisoni wa m'nyanja pamtengo kapena pansi

Kupereka gasi kuti ntchito yonyamula gasi

Kuti apereke ntchito izi, umbilical wakuya wamadzi ukhoza kuphatikizapo

Machubu a jakisoni a Chemical

Machubu operekera ma hydraulic

Zingwe zowongolera zamagetsi

Zingwe zamagetsi zamagetsi

Chizindikiro cha fiber optic

Machubu akulu onyamula gasi

Subsea umbilical ndi gulu la ma hydraulic hoses omwe amathanso kuphatikizira zingwe zamagetsi kapena ulusi wa optic, womwe umagwiritsidwa ntchito kuwongolera zida zapansi panyanja kuchokera papulatifomu yakunyanja kapena chotengera choyandama.Ndi gawo lofunikira pamakina opangira ma subsea, popanda zomwe kukhazikika kwamafuta aku subsea sikungatheke.

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Zigawo Zofunikira

Topside Umbilical Termination Assembly (TUTA)

The Topside Umbilical Termination Assembly (TUTA) imapereka mawonekedwe pakati pa umbilical wamkulu ndi zida zowongolera zapamtunda.Chipindacho ndi mpanda waulere womwe umatha kumangiriridwa ndi bawuti kapena kuwotcherera pamalo oyandikana ndi thabwa la umbilical pamalo owopsa omwe ali pamtunda wamtunda.Magawo awa nthawi zambiri amapangidwa kuti agwirizane ndi zomwe makasitomala amafuna potengera ma hydraulic, pneumatic, mphamvu, chizindikiro, fiber optic, ndi kusankha zinthu.

TUTA nthawi zambiri imaphatikizapo mabokosi amagetsi amagetsi amagetsi ndi zingwe zoyankhulirana, komanso ntchito ya chubu, ma geji, ndi ma valve otchinga ndi okhetsa magazi oyenerera ma hydraulic ndi mankhwala.

(Subsea) Umbilical Termination Assembly (UTA)

UTA, atakhala pamwamba pa matope, ndi ma electro-hydraulic multiplexed electro-hydraulic system amalola kuti ma modules ambiri a subsea agwirizane ndi mauthenga omwewo, magetsi ndi ma hydraulic supply lines.Chotsatira chake ndi chakuti zitsime zambiri zimatha kuwongoleredwa kudzera pa umbilical imodzi.Kuchokera ku UTA, zolumikizana ndi zitsime zapayekha ndi ma SCM amapangidwa ndi ma jumper assemblies.

Steel Flying Leads (SFL)

Zowongolera zowuluka zimapereka kulumikizana kwamagetsi / hydraulic / mankhwala kuchokera ku UTA kupita kumitengo yamtundu uliwonse / zowongolera.Iwo ndi gawo la njira yogawa ma subsea yomwe imagawira ntchito za umbilical ku zolinga zawo zomwe akufuna.Amayikidwa pambuyo pa umbilical ndikulumikizidwa ndi ROV.

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Zida za Umbilical

Kutengera ndi mitundu ya ntchito, zinthu zotsatirazi zimapezeka nthawi zambiri:

Thermoplastic
Ubwino: Ndi wotchipa, yobereka mwachangu, komanso kutopa kugonjetsedwa
Kuipa: Osayenerera madzi akuya;vuto ngakhale mankhwala;kukalamba, etc.

Zinc yokutidwa Nitronic 19D duplex chitsulo chosapanga dzimbiri

Zabwino:

Mtengo wotsika poyerekeza ndi super duplex chitsulo chosapanga dzimbiri (SDSS)
Mphamvu zokolola zapamwamba poyerekeza ndi 316L
Kukana dzimbiri mkati
Imagwirizana ndi ma hydraulic komanso ntchito yojambulira mankhwala ambiri
Woyenerera kuchita ntchito zosunthika

Zoyipa:

Chitetezo cha kunja kwa dzimbiri chimafunika - zinki yowonjezera

Nkhawa za kudalirika kwa seam welds mu makulidwe ena

Machubu ndi olemera komanso okulirapo kuposa SDSS yofanana - yang'anani ndikuyika nkhawa

Chitsulo chosapanga dzimbiri 316L

Zabwino:
Mtengo wotsika
Imafunikira chitetezo chochepa kapena chosapezeka kwanthawi yayitali
Mphamvu zochepa zokolola
Kupikisana ndi thermoplastic chifukwa chotsika, madzi osaya -otsika mtengo kwa moyo waufupi
Zoyipa:
Osayeneretsedwa kuchita ntchito zosunthika
chloride pitting atengeke

Super Duplex Stainless Steel (Pitting Resistance Equivalent - PRE>40)

Zabwino:
High mphamvu zikutanthauza m'mimba mwake yaing'ono, kuwala kulemera kwa unsembe ndi kupachika.
Kukana kwambiri kupsinjika kwa dzimbiri kung'ambika m'malo a chloride (pitting kukana kofanana> 40) kumatanthauza kuti palibe zokutira kapena CP yofunika.
Njira yotulutsa imatanthauza kuti palibe zovuta kuziwona zowotcherera msoko.
Zoyipa:
Mapangidwe a Inter-metallic phase (sigma) popanga ndi kuwotcherera ayenera kuyendetsedwa.
Mtengo wokwera kwambiri, nthawi yayitali yotsogolera yazitsulo zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito pamachubu a umbilical

Zinc yokutidwa ndi carbon steel (ZCCS)

Zabwino:
Mtengo wotsika poyerekeza ndi SDSS
Woyenerera kuchita ntchito zosunthika
Zoyipa:
Msoko wowotcherera
Kuchepa kwa dzimbiri Kwamkati kuposa 19D
Zolemera komanso zazikulu kwambiri poyerekeza ndi SDSS

Kutumizidwa kwa umbilical

Ma umbilical omwe angoyikidwa kumene amakhala ndi madzi osungiramo.Madzi osungira ayenera kuchotsedwa ndi zinthu zomwe akufuna asanayambe kugwiritsidwa ntchito popanga.Kusamala kuyenera kutsatiridwa poyang'ana zovuta zomwe zingayambitse kusagwirizana komwe kungayambitse madzi ndikupangitsa kuti machubu a umbilical atsekedwe.Madzi otetezedwa oyenera amafunikira ngati kusagwirizana kukuyembekezeka.Mwachitsanzo, kuti mutumize mzere wa asphaltene inhibitor, chosungunulira chofanana ngati EGMBE chimafunika kuti chipereke chitetezo pakati pa asphaltene inhibitor ndi madzi osungira chifukwa nthawi zambiri sizigwirizana.